Плагины и расширения могут действовать в обход Tor и поставить под удар вашу приватность. Остальные советы по решению проблем: Управление по Tor Browser. Как проверить цифровую подпись Tor Browser? Мы — некоммерческая организация. Стабильная и безопасная работа Tor на благо миллионов людей по всему миру зависит от поддержки юзеров — таковых, как вы. О торговой марке, авторских правах и критериях использования продукта третьими сторонами можно почитать здесь: FAQ.
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Each relay rotates its onion key once a week. When the Tor client establishes circuits, at each step it demands that the Tor relay prove knowledge of its onion key. Coordination : How do clients know what the relays are, and how do they know that they have the right keys for them? Each relay has a long-term public signing key called the "identity key".
Each directory authority additionally has a "directory signing key". The directory authorities provide a signed list of all the known relays, and in that list are a set of certificates from each relay self-signed by their identity key specifying their keys, locations, exit policies, and so on.
The Tor software comes with a built-in list of location and public key for each directory authority. So the only way to trick users into using a fake Tor network is to give them a specially modified version of the software. Tor will reuse the same circuit for new TCP streams for 10 minutes, as long as the circuit is working fine. If the circuit fails, Tor will switch to a new circuit immediately. But note that a single TCP stream e. Otherwise, an adversary with a partial view of the network would be given many chances over time to link you to your destination, rather than just one chance.
Digital signature is a process ensuring that a certain package was generated by its developers and has not been tampered with. Below we explain why it is important and how to verify that the Tor Browser you download is the one we have created and has not been modified by some attacker. Each file on our download page is accompanied by a file labelled "signature" with the same name as the package and the extension ".
This will vary by web browser, but generally you can download this file by right-clicking the "signature" link and selecting the "save file as" option. For example, torbrowser-install-win These are example file names and will not exactly match the file names that you download. Please notice that a signature is dated the moment the package has been signed. Therefore every time a new file is uploaded a new signature is generated with a different date.
As long as you have verified the signature you should not worry that the reported date may vary. If you run Windows, download Gpg4win and run its installer. In order to verify the signature you will need to type a few commands in windows command-line, cmd. In order to verify the signature you will need to type a few commands in the Terminal under "Applications".
In order to verify the signature you will need to type a few commands in a terminal window. How to do this will vary depending on your distribution. The Tor Browser team signs Tor Browser releases. You might be able to import the key using the Workaround using a public key section instead. This command results in the key being saved to a file found at the path.
To verify the signature of the package you downloaded, you will need to download the corresponding ". The examples below assume that you downloaded these two files to your "Downloads" folder. Note that these commands use example file names and yours will be different: you will have downloaded a different version than 9. If you encounter errors you cannot fix, feel free to download and use this public key instead. Alternatively, you may use the following command:.
Tor Browser Developers key is also available on keys. Please see the Installation section in the Tor Browser Manual. Please see the Uninstalling section in the Tor Browser Manual. Please see the Updating section in the Tor Browser Manual. The file you download and run prompts you for a destination. The default setting in the Windows installer also creates a shortcut for you on your Desktop, though be aware that you may have accidentally deselected the option to create a shortcut.
Whenever we release a new stable version of Tor Browser, we write a blog post that details its new features and known issues. If you started having issues with your Tor Browser after an update, check out blog. We want everyone to be able to enjoy Tor Browser in their own language. Tor Browser is now available in 36 different languages , and we are working to add more. Want to help us translate?
Become a Tor translator! You can also help us in testing the next languages we will release, by installing and testing Tor Browser Alpha releases. No, Tor Browser is an open source software and it is free. Any browser forcing you to pay and is claiming to be Tor Browser is fake.
To make sure you are downloading the right Tor Browser visit our download page. After downloading, you can make sure that you have the official version of Tor Browser by verifying the signature. If you are not able to access our website, then visit censorship section to get information about alternate way of downloading Tor Browser. Note that by using Tor Mobile on Chrome OS, you will view the mobile not desktop versions of websites. Using Tor Browser can sometimes be slower than other browsers.
The Tor network has over a million daily users, and just over relays to route all of their traffic, and the load on each server can sometimes cause latency. You can help improve the speed of the network by running your own relay , or encouraging others to do so. That said, Tor is much faster than it used to be and you may not actually notice any change in speed from other browsers.
They erase all the information on your machine relating to the browsing session after they are closed, but have no measures in place to hide your activity or digital fingerprint online. This means that an observer can collect your traffic just as easily as any regular browser.
There are methods for setting Tor Browser as your default browser, but those methods may not work always or in every operating system. The Tor Browser works hard to isolate itself from the rest of your system, and the steps for making it the default browser are unreliable.
This means sometimes a website would load in the Tor Browser, and sometimes it would load in another browser. This type of behavior can be dangerous and break anonymity. We strongly recommend against using Tor in any browser other than Tor Browser. Using Tor in another browser can leave you vulnerable without the privacy protections of Tor Browser. You can certainly use another browser while you are also using Tor Browser. However, you should know that the privacy properties of Tor Browser will not be present in the other browser.
Be careful when switching back and forth between Tor and a less safe browser, because you may accidentally use the other browser for something you intended to do using Tor. However, be aware that your other browser is not keeping your activity private, and you may forget and accidentally use that non-private browser to do something that you intended to do in Tor Browser. Any other application on your system including other browsers will not have their connections routed over the Tor network, and will not be protected.
They need to be configured separately to use Tor. If you need to be sure that all traffic will go through the Tor network, take a look at the Tails live operating system which you can start on almost any computer from a USB stick or a DVD. We do not recommend running multiple instances of Tor Browser, and doing so may not work as anticipated on many platforms.
Please be sure no other instance of Tor Browser is already running, and that you have extracted Tor Browser in a location that your user has the correct permissions for. Tor Browser is a modified version of Firefox specifically designed for use with Tor.
A lot of work has been put into making the Tor Browser, including the use of extra patches to enhance privacy and security. While it is technically possible to use Tor with other browsers, you may open yourself up to potential attacks or information leakage, so we strongly discourage it.
Learn more about the design of Tor Browser. Bookmarks in the Tor Browser can be exported, imported, backed up, restored as well as imported from another browser. In order to manage your bookmarks in Tor Browser, go to:. Your bookmarks are now successfully exported from Tor Browser. The bookmarks HTML file you saved is now ready to be imported into another web browser.
Bookmarks can be transferred from Firefox to Tor Browser. After exporting the data from the browser, follow the above step to import the bookmark file into your Tor Browser. Note: Currently, on Tor Browser for Android , there is no good way to export and import bookmarks. Bug At the bottom of the page, next to the "View the Tor logs" text, click the button "View Logs You should see an option to copy the log to your clipboard, which you will be able to paste it into a text editor or an email client.
Tor Browser in its default mode is starting with a content window rounded to a multiple of px x px to prevent fingerprinting the screen dimensions. The strategy here is to put all users in a couple of buckets to make it harder to single them out.
That works so far until users start to resize their windows e. Tor Browser ships with a fingerprinting defense for those scenarios as well, which is called Letterboxing , a technique developed by Mozilla and presented in It works by adding white margins to a browser window so that the window is as close as possible to the desired size while users are still in a couple of screen size buckets that prevent singling them out with the help of screen dimensions.
In simple words, this technique makes groups of users of certain screen sizes and this makes it harder to single out users on basis of screen size, as many users will have same screen size. Something like this might do the trick:. I tried to access your site xyz. I urge you to reconsider this decision; Tor is used by people all over the world to protect their privacy and fight censorship. By blocking Tor users, you are likely blocking people in repressive countries who want to use a free internet, journalists and researchers who want to protect themselves from discovery, whistleblowers, activists, and ordinary people who want to opt out of invasive third party tracking.
Please take a strong stance in favor of digital privacy and internet freedom, and allow Tor users access to xyz. Thank you. In the case of banks, and other sensitive websites, it is also common to see geography-based blocking if a bank knows you generally access their services from one country, and suddenly you are connecting from an exit relay on the other side of the world, your account may be locked or suspended.
If you are unable to connect to an onion service, please see I cannot reach X. Tor Browser often makes your connection appear as though it is coming from an entirely different part of the world. Some websites, such as banks or email providers, might interpret this as a sign that your account has been compromised, and lock you out.
The simplest fix is to click on the Security icon the small gray shield at the top-right of the screen , then click "Advanced Security Settings Most antivirus or malware protection allows the user to "allowlist" certain processes that would otherwise be blocked.
Please open your antivirus or malware protection software and look in the settings for a "allowlist" or something similar. Next, exclude the following processes:. Finally, restart Tor Browser. Please note that some antivirus clients, like Kaspersky, may also be blocking Tor at the firewall level. If you downloaded Tor Browser from our main website or used GetTor , and verified it , these are false positives and you have nothing to worry about.
Some antiviruses consider that files that have not been seen by a lot of users as suspicious. You may also want to permit certain processes to prevent antiviruses from blocking access to Tor Browser. You might be on a network that is blocking the Tor network, and so you should try using bridges. Some bridges are built in to Tor Browser and requires only a few steps to enable it.
Under the "Bridges" section, select the checkbox "Use a bridge", and choose the "Select a built-in bridge" option. Your settings will automatically be saved once you close the tab. If you need other bridges, you can get them at our Bridges website. For more information about bridges, see the Tor Browser manual. One of the most common issues that causes connection errors in Tor Browser is an incorrect system clock. Please make sure your system clock and timezone are set accurately.
The notification window lists a series of IP addresses and locations throughout the world recently used to access your account. In general, this is a false alarm: Google saw a bunch of logins from different places, as a result of running the service via Tor, and decided it was a good idea to confirm the account was being accessed by its rightful owner. It is probably a false positive, but it might not be since it is possible for someone to hijack your Google cookie.
Cookie hijacking is possible by either physical access to your computer or by watching your network traffic. In theory, only physical access should compromise your system because Gmail and similar services should only send the cookie over an SSL link. And if somebody did steal your Google cookie, they might end up logging in from unusual places though of course they also might not.
More recently, Gmail users can turn on 2-Step Verification on their accounts to add an extra layer of security. This is a known and intermittent problem; it does not mean that Google considers Tor to be spyware. When you use Tor, you are sending queries through exit relays that are also shared by thousands of other users.
Tor users typically see this message when many Tor users are querying Google in a short period of time. Google interprets the high volume of traffic from a single IP address the exit relay you happened to pick as somebody trying to "crawl" their website, so it slows down traffic from that IP address for a short time.
An alternate explanation is that Google tries to detect certain kinds of spyware or viruses that send distinctive queries to Google Search. It notes the IP addresses from which those queries are received not realizing that they are Tor exit relays , and tries to warn any connections coming from those IP addresses that recent queries indicate an infection. To our knowledge, Google is not doing anything intentionally specifically to deter or block Tor use. The error message about an infected machine should clear up again after a short time.
Google uses "geolocation" to determine where in the world you are, so it can give you a personalized experience. This includes using the language it thinks you prefer, and it also includes giving you different results on your queries. If you really want to see Google in English you can click the link that provides that. But we consider this a feature with Tor, not a bug the Internet is not flat, and it in fact does look different depending on where you are.
This feature reminds people of this fact. If you set "hl" to "en" then Google will return search results in English regardless of what Google server you have been sent to. The changed link might look like this:. Another method is to simply use your country code for accessing Google. This can be google.
Most other search engines store your searches along with other information such as the timestamp, your IP address, and your account information if you are logged in. Please see the DuckDuckGo support portal. If you believe this is a Tor Browser issue, please report it on our issue tracker. You can also access the New Circuit option inside the site information menu in the URL bar, and the New Identity option by clicking the small sparky broom icon at the top-right of the screen.
This option is useful if you want to prevent your subsequent browser activity from being linkable to what you were doing before. Selecting it will close all your tabs and windows, clear all private information such as cookies and browsing history, and use new Tor circuits for all connections. Tor Browser will warn you that all activity and downloads will be stopped, so take this into account before clicking "New Identity".
This option is useful if the exit relay you are using is unable to connect to the website you require, or is not loading it properly. Selecting it will cause the currently-active tab or window to be reloaded over a new Tor circuit. Other open tabs and windows from the same website will use the new circuit as well once they are reloaded. This option does not clear any private information or unlink your activity, nor does it affect your current connections to other websites.
Running Tor Browser does not make you act as a relay in the network. This means that your computer will not be used to route traffic for others. That is normal Tor behavior. The first relay in your circuit is called an "entry guard" or "guard". It is a fast and stable relay that remains the first one in your circuit for months in order to protect against a known anonymity-breaking attack.
The rest of your circuit changes with every new website you visit, and all together these relays provide the full privacy protections of Tor. For more information on how guard relays work, see this blog post and paper on entry guards. In Tor Browser, every new domain gets its own circuit. The Design and Implementation of Tor Browser document further explains the thinking behind this design.
Modifying the way that Tor creates its circuits is strongly discouraged. If the outcome you want is simply to be able to access resources that are only available in one country, you may want to consider using a VPN instead of using Tor. Please note that VPNs do not have the same privacy properties as Tor, but they will help solve some geolocation restriction issues.
Doing so can allow an attacker to compromise your security and anonymity through malicious configuration of your torrc. Tor uses a text file called torrc that contains configuration instructions for how Tor should behave. The default configuration should work fine for most Tor users hence the warning above. To find your Tor Browser torrc , follow the instructions for your operating system below.
Close Tor Browser before you edit your torrc , otherwise Tor Browser may erase your modifications. Some options will have no effect as Tor Browser overrides them with command line options when it starts Tor. Have a look at the sample torrc file for hints on common configurations. For other configuration options you can use, see the Tor manual page. Flash is disabled in Tor Browser, and we recommend you to not enable it.
Fortunately, most websites, devices, and other browsers are moving away from the use of Flash. Example with authentication:. We only support Basic auth currently, but if you need NTLM authentication, you may find this post in the archives useful. If your proxies only allow you to connect to certain ports, look at the entry on Firewalled clients for how to restrict what ports your Tor will try to access. If your firewall works by blocking ports, then you can tell Tor to only use the ports when you start your Tor Browser.
Or you can add the ports that your firewall permits by adding "FascistFirewall 1" to your torrc configuration file. You can select a different set of ports with the FirewallPorts torrc option. If you want to be more fine-grained with your controls, you can also use the ReachableAddresses config options, e.
This can be done by navigating the Security icon the small gray shield at the top-right of the screen , then clicking "Advanced Security Settings Tor can be configured as a client or a relay on another machine, and allow other machines to be able to connect to it for anonymity. This is most useful in an environment where many computers want a gateway of anonymity to the rest of the world. You can state multiple listen addresses, in the case that you are part of several networks or subnets.
When setting up your SocksListenAddress es , you need to give the port with the address, as shown above. By default, your Tor client only listens for applications that connect from localhost. Connections from other computers are refused. If you want to torify applications on different computers than the Tor client, you should edit your torrc to define SocksListenAddress 0. If you want to get more advanced, you can configure your Tor client on a firewall to bind to your internal IP but not your external IP.
If you believe this is a Tor Browser issue, please report it on our bug tracker. The Guardian Project maintains Orbot and other privacy applications on Android. We recommend an iOS app called Onion Browser, which is open source, uses Tor routing, and is developed by someone who works closely with the Tor Project. However, Apple requires browsers on iOS to use something called Webkit, which prevents Onion Browser from having the same privacy protections as Tor Browser.
Learn more about Onion Browser. Download Onion Browser from the App Store. Yes, there is a version of Tor Browser available specifically for Android. The Guardian Project provides the app Orbot which can be used to route other apps on your Android device over the Tor network, however only Tor Browser for Android is needed to browse the web with Tor. With the release of Tor Browser for Android Orfox has been retired.
While both Tor Browser for Android and Orbot are great, they serve different purposes. Tor Browser for Android is like the desktop Tor Browser, but on your mobile device. It is a one stop browser that uses the Tor network and tries to be as anonymous as possible. Orbot on the other hand is a proxy that will enable you to send the data from your other applications E-Mail clients, instant messaging apps, etc. That version, however, does not enable you to send other apps outside of the Tor Browser for Android through it.
Depending on how you want to use the Tor network, either one or both of these could be a great option. It will be, soon. Learn how to add a repository to F-Droid. Then paste the Tor log into a text file or other document. If you see lines like these in your Tor log, it means your Tor failed to connect to the first node in the Tor circuit. If you see lines like this in your Tor log, it means that Tor failed to complete a TLS handshake with the directory authorities. Using bridges will likely fix this.
If you see lines like this in your Tor log, it means your system clock is incorrect. Please make sure your clock is set accurately, including the correct timezone. Then restart Tor. If you cannot reach the onion service you desire, make sure that you have entered the character or, the newest format, character onion address correctly; even a small mistake will stop Tor Browser from being able to reach the site.
If you are still unable to connect to the onion service, please try again later. There may be a temporary connection issue, or the site operators may have allowed it to go offline without warning. Proxy server errors can occur for a variety of reasons. You may try one or more of the following activities in case you encounter this error:. GetTor is a service that automatically responds to messages with links to the latest version of Tor Browser, hosted at a variety of locations that are less likely to be censored, such as Dropbox, Google Drive, and GitHub.
For more geographically specific links visit Tor: Mirrors. Send an email to gettor torproject. In the body of the mail, write the name of your operating system such as Windows, macOS, or Linux. You may be offered a choice of "bit" or "bit" software: this depends on the model of the computer you are using; consult documentation about your computer to find out more. GetTor via Twitter is currently under maintenance.
Please use the email instead. A bridge is just a normal relay with a slightly different configuration. See How do I run a bridge for instructions. Several countries, including China and Iran, have found ways to detect and block connections to Tor bridges.
Obfsproxy bridges address this by adding another layer of obfuscation. Setting up an obfsproxy bridge requires an additional software package and additional configurations. See our page on pluggable transports for more info. Snowflake is a pluggable transport available in Tor Browser to defeat internet censorship.
Like a Tor bridge, a user can access the open internet when even regular Tor connections are censored. To use Snowflake is as easy as to switch to a new bridge configuration in Tor Browser. This system is composed of three components: volunteers running Snowflake proxies, Tor users that want to connect to the internet, and a broker, that delivers snowflake proxies to users. Volunteers willing to help users on censored networks can help by spinning short-lived proxies on their regular browsers.
Check, how can I use Snowflake? Snowflake uses the highly effective domain fronting technique to make a connection to one of the thousands of snowflake proxies run by volunteers. These proxies are lightweight, ephemeral, and easy to run, allowing us to scale Snowflake more easily than previous techniques. For censored users, if your Snowflake proxy gets blocked, the broker will find a new proxy for you, automatically.
Alternatively, you can also type about:preferences tor in the url bar. If your internet access is not censored, you should consider installing the Snowflake extension to help users in censored networks. Firstly make sure you have WebRTC enabled.
Then you can install this addon for Firefox or the add-on for Chrome which will let you become a Snowflake proxy. It can also inform you about how many people you have helped in the last 24 hours. Users in China need to take a few steps to circumvent the Great Firewall and connect to the Tor network. First, get an updated version of Tor Browser: send an email to gettor torproject.
After installing Tor Browser, you will probably not be able to connect directly to the Tor network, because the Great Firewall is blocking Tor. Therefore, the second step will be to obtain a bridge that works in China. If one of these options below is not working, check your Tor logs and try another option.
Tor prevents eavesdroppers from learning sites that you visit. However, information sent unencrypted over the internet using plain HTTP can still be intercepted by exit relay operators or anyone observing the traffic between your exit relay and your destination website. If you want to use this feature, you can consult our more detailed guide on the topic. Tor has partial support for IPv6 and we encourage every relay operator to enable IPv6 functionality in their torrc configuration files when IPv6 connectivity is available.
For the time being Tor will require IPv4 addresses on relays, you can not run a Tor relay on a host with IPv6 addresses only. But there are a few exceptions:. If you open your DirPort, then Tor clients will ask you for a copy of the directory. This probably accounts for most of the difference between your "write" byte count and your "read" byte count. Another minor exception shows up when you operate as an exit node, and you read a few bytes from an exit connection for example, an instant messaging or ssh connection and wrap it up into an entire byte cell for transport through the Tor network.
The parameters assigned in the AccountingMax and BandwidthRate apply to both client and relay functions of the Tor process. Thus you may find that you are unable to browse as soon as your Tor goes into hibernation, signaled by this entry in the log:. The solution is to run two Tor processes - one relay and one client, each with its own config. One way to do this if you are starting from a working relay setup is as follows:.
See portforward. If your relay is running on a internal net, you need to setup port forwarding. Forwarding TCP connections is system dependent but the firewalled-clients FAQ entry offers some examples on how to do this. You may have to change "eth0" if you have a different external interface the one connected to the Internet. Bridge operators can check which mechanism their bridge is using, on the Relay Search. Operators can also choose which distribution method their bridge uses. To change the method, modify the BridgeDistribution setting in the torrc file to one of these: https, moat, email, none, any.
Read more on the Bridges post-install guide. The simplest example is an attacker who owns a small number of Tor relays. There are also some downsides to running a Tor relay. It is an open research question whether the benefits outweigh the risks. A lot of that depends on the attacks you are most worried about. If you allow exit connections, some services that people connect to from your relay will connect back to collect more information about you.
For example, some IRC servers connect back to your identd port to record which user made the connection. Also, users exiting from you might attract the attention of other users on the IRC server, website, etc. Another reason is that groups who scan for open proxies on the Internet have learned that sometimes Tor relays expose their socks port to the world. We recommend that you bind your socksport to local networks only. In any case, you need to keep up to date with your security.
See this article on security for Tor relays for more suggestions. On relay search we show an amber dot next to the relay nickname when this is overloaded. This means that one or many of the following load metrics have been triggered:. Note that if a relay reaches an overloaded state we show it for 72 hours after the relay has recovered.
Consider tuning sysctl for your system for network, memory and CPU load. Consider enabling MetricsPort to understand what is happening. If you are experiencing TCP port exhaustion consider expanding your local port range. You can do that with. If you are experiencing DNS timeout, you should investigate if this is a network or a resolver issue. Please take extra precaution and care when opening this port, and close it when you are done debugging.
Set a very strict access policy with MetricsPortPolicy and consider using your operating systems firewall features for defense in depth. Tor is sadly single threaded except for when the "onion skins" are processed. The "onion skins" are the cryptographic work that needs to be done on the famous "onion layers" in every circuits. When tor processes the layers we use a thread pool and outsource all of that work to that pool. It can happen that this pool starts dropping work due to memory or CPU pressure and this will trigger an overload state.
DNS timeouts issues only apply to Exit nodes. This might not be because your relay is overloaded in terms of resources but it signals a problem on the network. Therefore Exit operators really need to address these issues to help the network.
The relay might need more RAM or it is leaking memory. If you noticed that the tor process is leaking memory, please report the issue either via Tor gitLab or sending an email to the tor-relays mailing list. Thus, let say tor thinks it can use 2GB in total then at 1. That is considered an overload state. To estimate the amount of memory it has available, when tor starts, it will use MaxMemInQueues or, if not set, will look at the total RAM available on the system and apply this algorithm:.
Because tor takes the total memory on the system when it starts, if the overall system has many other applications running using RAM, it ends up eating too much memory. These lines indicate the relay is running out of sockets.
The solution is to increase ulimit -n for the tor process. Try to tune sysctl as described above. If this counter is incremented by some noticeable value over a short period of time, the relay is congested. It is likely being used as a Guard by a big onion service or for an ongoing DDoS on the network.
You can encrypt your email using network-report OpenPGP key. The accounting options in the torrc file allow you to specify the maximum amount of bytes your relay uses for a time period. This specifies when the accounting should reset. For instance, to setup a total amount of bytes served for a week that resets every Wednesday at am , you would use:. This specifies the maximum amount of data your relay will send during an accounting period, and the maximum amount of data your relay will receive during an account period.
When the accounting period resets from AccountingStart , then the counters for AccountingMax are reset to 0. It will keep track of how quickly it used its quota in the last period, and choose a random point in the new interval to wake up. This way we avoid having hundreds of relays working at the beginning of each month but none still up by the end. Just divide your monthly amount by For example, if you have 50 GB to offer each way, you might set your RelayBandwidthRate to KBytes: this way your relay will always be useful for at least half of each day.
Each Tor relay has an exit policy that specifies what sort of outbound connections are allowed or refused from that relay. The exit policies are propagated to Tor clients via the directory, so clients will automatically avoid picking exit relays that would refuse to exit to their intended destination. This way each relay can decide the services, hosts, and networks it wants to allow connections to, based on abuse potential and its own situation.
The default exit policy allows access to many popular services e. You can change your exit policy by editing your torrc file. This setting means that your relay will be used for relaying traffic inside the Tor network, but not for connections to external websites or other services.
If you do allow any exit connections, make sure name resolution works that is, your computer can resolve Internet addresses correctly. If your relay is relatively new then give it time. Tor decides which relays it uses heuristically based on reports from Bandwidth Authorities. The lifecycle of a new relay is explained in more depth in this blog post.
If you do decide to run more than one relay, please set the "MyFamily" config option in the torrc of each relay, listing all the relays comma-separated that are under your control:. That way, Tor clients will know to avoid using more than one of your relays in a single circuit. The default open ports are listed below but keep in mind that, any port or ports can be opened by the relay operator by configuring it in torrc or modifying the source code.
Tor guesses its IP address by asking the computer for its hostname, and then resolving that hostname. Also, if you have many addresses, you might also want to set "OutboundBindAddress" so external connections come from the IP you intend to present to the world.
Tor manages bandwidth across the entire network. It does a reasonable job for most relays. Tor wants low-latency web pages, which requires fast connections with headroom. BitTorrent wants bulk downloads, which requires using all the bandwidth. Most providers tell you the maximum speed of your local connection.
But Tor has users all over the world, and our users connect to one or two Guard relays at random. So we need to know how well each relay can connect to the entire world. So even if all relay operators set their advertised bandwidth to their local connection speed, we would still need bandwidth authorities to balance the load between different parts of the Internet. This is good for clients: an overloaded relay has high latency.
Then Tor would be almost as fast as the wider Internet. Sometimes, a relay is slow because its processor is slow or its connections are limited. Other times, it is the network that is slow: the relay has bad peering to most other tor relays, or is a long distance away. Look up your relay on Metrics. Then mouse over the bandwidth heading to see the observed bandwidth and relay bandwidth rate.
Here is some more detail and some examples: Drop in consensus weight and Rampup speed of Exit relay. If your relay thinks it is slow, or the bandwidth authorities think it is slow, you can test the bandwidth yourself:. BandwidthRate is the maximum long-term bandwidth allowed bytes per second. For example, you might want to choose "BandwidthRate 10 MBytes" for 10 megabytes per second a fast connection , or "BandwidthRate KBytes" for kilobytes per second a decent cable connection.
The minimum BandwidthRate setting is 75 kilobytes per second. BandwidthBurst is a pool of bytes used to fulfill requests during short periods of traffic above BandwidthRate but still keeps the average over a long period to BandwidthRate. For example, if you choose "BandwidthBurst KBytes" and also use that for your BandwidthRate, then you will never use more than kilobytes per second; but if you choose a higher BandwidthBurst like 5 MBytes , it will allow more bytes through until the pool is empty.
Otherwise, you could drop many packets during periods of maximum bandwidth usage - you may need to experiment with which values make your connection comfortable. Then set BandwidthBurst to the same as BandwidthRate. Linux-based Tor nodes have another option at their disposal: they can prioritize Tor traffic below other traffic on their machine, so that their own personal traffic is not impacted by Tor load.
Additionally, there are hibernation options where you can tell Tor to only serve a certain amount of bandwidth per time period such as GB per month. These are covered in the hibernation entry below. Instead, consider running your exit relay in a commercial facility that is supportive of Tor. Of course, you should avoid keeping any sensitive or personal information on the computer hosting your exit relay.
All outgoing connections must be allowed, so that each relay can communicate with every other relay. In many jurisdictions, Tor relay operators are legally protected by the same common carrier regulations that prevent internet service providers from being held liable for third-party content that passes through their network. Exit relays that filter some traffic would likely forfeit those protections. Tor promotes free network access without interference.
Exit relays must not filter the traffic that passes through them to the internet. Exit relays found to be filtering traffic will get the BadExit flag once detected. This tells Tor to avoid exiting through that relay. In effect, relays with this flag become non-exits. Please reach out to the bad-relays team so we can sort out the issue.
Exonerator is a web service that can check if an IP address was a relay at a given time. We can also provide a signed letter if needed. For the most in-depth resource on running a relay, see the Relay Setup Guide. Tor can handle relays with dynamic IP addresses just fine. Just leave the "Address" line in your torrc blank, and Tor will guess. Note: As of Tor 0. Eventually they will replace the old RSA identities, but that will happen in time, to ensure compatibility with older versions.
All of this said, fast Tor relays do use a lot of ram. It is not unusual for a fast exit relay to use MB of memory. See our obfs4 setup guide to learn how to set up an obfs4 bridge. If you are unable to guarantee that, Snowflake is a better way to contribute your resources to the Tor network.
When you click on ". A list of our Onion Services is available at onion. Websites that are only accessible over Tor are called "onions" and end in the TLD. You can access these websites by using Tor Browser. The addresses must be shared with you by the website host, as onions are not indexed in search engines in the typical way that vanilla websites are.
When browsing an Onion Service, Tor Browser displays different onion icons in the address bar indicating the security of the current webpage. An onion with a red slash means:. An onion with caution sign means:. An authenticated onion service is an onion service that requires you to provide an authentication token in this case, a private key before accessing the service.
You can get the access credentials from the onion service operator. Reach out to the operator and request access. Learn more about how to use onion authentication in Tor Browser. If you want to create an onion service with client authentication, please see the Client Authorization in the Community portal.
Onion services allow people to browse but also to publish anonymously, including publishing anonymous websites. Onion services are also relied on for metadata-free chat and file sharing, safer interaction between journalists and their sources like with SecureDrop or OnionShare , safer software updates, and more secure ways to reach popular websites like Facebook.
These services use the special-use top level domain TLD. When accessing a website that uses an onion service, Tor Browser will show at the URL bar an icon of an onion displaying the state of your connection: secure and using an onion service. You can identify v3 onion addresses by their 56 character length, e. In September , Tor started warning onion service operators and clients that v2 will be deprecated and obsolete in version 0.
Tor Browser started warning users in June, In July , 0. In October , we will release new Tor client stable versions for all supported series that will disable v2. V2 onion addresses are fundamentally insecure. If you have a v2 onion, we recommend you migrate now.
This is a backward incompatible change: v2 onion services will not be reachable after September In torrc, to create a version 3 address, you simply need to create a new service just as you did your v2 service, with these two lines:.
Restart tor, and look on your directory for the new address. If you wish to keep running your version 2 service until it is deprecated to provide a transition path to your users, add this line to the configuration block of your version 2 service:. If you have Onion-Location configured on your website, you need to set the header with your new v3 address.
For technical documentation about running onion services, please read the Onion Services page in our Community portal. No, v2 onion connections will start failing nowish, first slowly, then suddenly. Already, introduction points are not in Tor 0. Yes, it will work until the v2 onion address is unreachable. You may want to encourage users to update their bookmarks. Yes, we are continuously working on improving onion services security. For an overview about these proposals, read the detailed blog post How to stop the onion denial of service.
We are so sorry, but you have been infected with malware. The Tor Project did not create this malware. But please consider that our software is used every day for a wide variety of purposes by human rights activists, journalists, domestic violence survivors, whistleblowers, law enforcement officers, and many others.
Unfortunately, the protection that our software can provide to these groups of people can also be abused by criminals and malware authors. The Tor Project does not support or condone the use of our software for malicious purposes. You can read all about that on our Trademark faq page. If you suspect your application might behave like this, follow the instructions below to check. If you want to automatically disable all connections leaking DNS requests, set SafeSocks 1 in your torrc file.
Tor is designed to defend human rights and privacy by preventing anyone from censoring things, even us. We do take some safe measurements of how the network functions, which you can check out at Tor Metrics. Vidalia is no longer maintained or supported. A large portion of the features Vidalia offered have now been integrated into Tor Browser itself. Right now the path length is hard-coded at 3 plus the number of nodes in your path that are sensitive.
Also, using paths longer than 3 could harm anonymity, first because it makes denial of security attacks easier, and second because it could act as an identifier if only a small number of users have the same path length as you. After eleven beta releases, we discontinued support of Tor Messenger. Do you? Contact us. Tor relies on the support of users and volunteers around the world to help us improve our software and resources, so your feedback is extremely valuable to us and to all Tor users.
We recommend asking for help on the Tor Forum. You will need to create an account to submit a new topic. Before you ask, please review our discussion guidelines. At the moment, for the fastest response, please write in English. If you found a bug, please use GitLab. First, check if the bug is already known. We track all Tor Browser related issues at Tor Browser issue tracker.
Issues related to our websites should be filed under the Web issue tracker. The more specific your subject line is e. If none of these languages works for you, please write in any language you feel comfortable with, but keep in mind it will take us a bit longer to answer as we will need help with translation to understand it.
You can always leave comments on the blog post related to the issue or feedback you want to report. If there is not a blog post related to your issue, please contact us another way. We may not respond right away, but we do check the backlog and will get back to you when we can. For reporting issues or feedback using email lists, we recommend that you do so on the one that is related to what you would like to report.
A complete directory of our mailing lists can be found here. For feedback or issues related to Tor Browser, Tor network or other projects developed by Tor: tor-talk. For feedback or issues related to our websites: ux. For feedback or issues related to running a Tor relay: tor-relays. For feedback on content related to Tor Browser Manual or Support website: tor-community-team. If you want to encrypt your mail, you can get the GPG public key for the list by contacting tor-security-sendkey lists.
Here is the fingerprint:. For sharing files over Tor, OnionShare is a good option. OnionShare is an open source tool for securely and anonymously sending and receiving files using Tor onion services. It works by starting a web server directly on your computer and making it accessible as an unguessable Tor web address that others can load in Tor Browser to download files from you, or upload files to you.
Many exit nodes are configured to block certain types of file sharing traffic, such as BitTorrent. BitTorrent in particular is not anonymous over Tor. Thank you for your support! You can find more information about donating on our donor FAQ. Tor is funded by a number of different sponsors including US federal agencies, private foundations, and individual donors. Check out a list of all our sponsors and a series of blog posts on our financial reports.
We feel that talking openly about our sponsors and funding model is the best way to maintain trust with our community. We are always seeking more diversity in our funding sources, especially from foundations and individuals. We do not recommend using Tor with BitTorrent. For further details, please see our blog post on the subject. A list of all of our software projects can be found on our projects page.
Please see our community page for how to get involved! There is nothing the Tor developers can do to trace Tor users. IRC has worked out well for us, and our community on IRC has been evolving over the years with new people joining in and new channels appearing for specific needs in the organization.
The Tor community is opening up its day-to-day conversations by bridging our IRC community the Matrix network. For regular Tor users, it means that you can chat with us using a friendly App like Element. The tor:matrix. To join the conversation with Tor contributors on Matrix, you need a Matrix account. Several providers can get you one.
One of these is the Matrix. You can register an account on app. Once you have a Matrix account, you can either join the Tor Matrix Space to browse the Tor rooms, or directly join the tor:matrix.
If you can login to this site, you will be able to login again within a day. To death! No demarcation, but who can laugh. All Bitcoins have disappeared. They have all moved to BTC. The empire was still crying over Berlusconi and all over it, ever since it made many big sales names. Some retailers come across stealing and scams because they have their own black web, but how do you know? This publication is for me and for the long haul. Many recommendations are offered, but often unresponsive support and discussion I got it wrong because the editor had no answer.
I can honestly say that this campaign is starting to come as a brood. Rest in peace Rich. Today, bitcoin has risen by 0. In the meantime, come back to me. I also No one should have too many problems. We hope we will. You get everything I need right away!
It was like an email store for the big days, everything came today. It was easy to see and the coins were easy and safe to store. Many friendly suppliers and excellent customer service. I really want to Please check it. Please help me! For a suggestion of collusive fraud, this seller should be avoided at all costs. Avoid, avoid, avoid.
Whatever the commenter says about the royal market, the commentator should contain it. This is false information. I have a different view of kryptonia. The market is small, but you have found a good seller. Compact with the king. Everyone says they are enlightened Why does the kingdom not support and testify?
The store sold my 5 5 PayPal payments guide and it worked. I bought it on Sunday saying it would come out in the morning but I couldnt watch it Berlusconi and I have not found anything else so far. My last two deposits were taking a very long time, maybe a little longer. A large park has been closed to register new names.
The world is a different place from the dream market. If you know Reliable answers to questions? Nothing works here. Always go for it and empty things. Most sellers try to avoid fraud. Tears Empire Market? Hi, read the simple pgp tutorial in the text section. Believe me, there is no freak who understands this guide. Just be patient with the links, update the changes, and when you log in to the page, you translate the other links.
I made a reservation and ordered using this link and save the package the next day. Hydra магазин. Торговля незаконными продуктами и предоставление услуг, за которые можно получить срок, - занятие очень рискованное. Чтоб обезопасить себя от вероятных последствий, торговцы из данного сектора перебежали на теневую сторону сети — в даркнет.
С ее помощью достигается высочайший уровень анонимности. Взаиморасчеты меж юзерами осуществляются при помощи криптовалют. Отсутствие привязки личности сторон к банковским аккаунтам дозволяет исключить внимание страж порядка к транзакциям; Гидра обеспечивает поддержку клиентов и продавцов, что гарантирует сохранность сделки. Чтоб получить ссылку на Гидру , довольно перейти по указанной ссылке. Для вас раскроется бескрайний доступ к товарам и услугам, за которые на обычных торговых площадках есть риск попасть под уголовное преследование.
Как обойти блокировку Гидра? Ссылка на Гидру — актуальный запрос в поисковых системах для тех, кто хочет приобрести продукты и сервисы, не попадающие в рамки российского законодательства. Обругал всех, кого может быть, начиная от провайдера и кончая Президентом. Мне и не к чему было поглядеть на компьютерные часы. И оказалось, что они отставали на одни день.
Отлично, что я решил заглянуть в Веб и чего-нибудь почитать на эту тему. Отлично, что подвернулась эта статья. А то бы ещё несколько дней посиживал и ожидал у моря погоды. Попытайтесь установить автоматическое определение даты и времени, так как даже малое различие может привести к ошибке.
Закройте Tor и отключите все защитные программы, имеющиеся на компе. Проверьте работу браузера. Ежели это не посодействовало, верните все на место. Ежели неувязка была устранена — нужно разбираться в настройках защитных программ. Закройте и запустите Тор. Попытайтесь проверить работу браузера при таковых настройках. Где у вас отображается страничка Bing? В браузере? Инспектируйте перечень установленных программ на компе, возможно, на ваш комп попало ПО от Bing. Да вправду неувязка была в синхронизации времени.
Само решение, которой в данной для нас статье описано, не посодействовало. Но зато натолкнуло на правильное — пришлось разбираться и перенастраивать синхронизацию. Решил эту проблемку последующим образом: Дальше будет показан пример правки реестра операционной системы.
Ежели Вы не убеждены в собственных действиях, не выполняйте правку реестра! Под Windows XP Запустите regedit. Меняем time. У меня сработало. Может кто подскажет что это такое? Галина, а это не у Вас, это у поисковика препядствия. Они, видимо, просрочили SSL сертификат. Подождите мало, наладят, быстрее всего. У какого поисковика препядствия, там ведь их много, и что у всех Tor лег и так тихо в интернете? Тихо,может быть почти все празднуют 23 февраля ,Подожду,пока наладят ssl сертификаты.
Переустанавливать надоело. Галина, вы отыскали решение проблемы? У меня точно таковая же ситуация. Ежели отыскали, то отпишитесь, ежели для вас не трудно. Окно Tor Browser с главной его страничкой у меня без заморочек раскрывается, но при попытке зайти на соврешенно хоть какой веб-сайт, пусть даже Вики, возникает заморочек интернет-соединения.
Что с сиим делать? Да ни фига. Время в порядке, а тор пишет Ошибка при установлении защищённого соединения При этом лишь в 10 винде. Хороший день. Для начала удостоверьтесь, что на вашем компе имеется крайняя версия Tor. Ежели нет — непременно загрузите последнюю. Также попытайтесь на время отключить работу вашего антивируса, а потом возобновить попытку работы с веб-обозревателем.
Ежели это не поможет, уточните, время на компе вручную выставлено либо активирована автоматом синхронизация? Страничка, которую вы пытаетесь просмотреть, не может быть отображена, так как достоверность приобретенных данных не может быть проверена. Пожалуйста, свяжитесь с обладателями сайта и проинформируйте их о данной для нас дилемме.
Дата и время установленны верно, и Касперского отключала и Googie Chrom обнавленный.. Все равно нет соединения. Пару дней назад заходила, даже закладку установила. В компонентах нету программы. Жду инструкций. Я новичок, пожалуйста подробней. С уважением Татьяна. Здрасти, А. Во первых, кропотливо проверьте системное время.
Расхождение в минутку уже станет препятствием для обычной работы тора. Самым правильным вариантом будет настроить время по вебу. Клик по часам в области уведомлений 2. Перебегайте к характеристикам даты и времени.
Позже ОК. Также попытайтесь старенькую версию тор-браузера. У меня работает, лишь что проверил. Лишь вот не знаю, стоит ли его обновлять. Попробуйте, в любом случае можно будет установить распаковать поновой. Discarding this circuit.
Tor will not make or accept non-control network connections. Shutting down all existing connections. Здрасти, linux mint. Это быстрее всего, означает, что Ваш провайдер перекрывает тор. Делается это так: 1. Мосты смотрятся вот так:. Сможете пока испытать пользоваться этими, но они также будут вычеслены и скоро заблочены. Так что придется без помощи других помучиться с капчой попробуете — поймете, о чем я.